-German Wars of Unification (1864, 1866, 1870–71)

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Hagemann, Karen. "German Heroes: The Cult of the Death for the Fatherland in Nineteenth-Century Germany." In Masculinities in Politics and War: Gendering Modern History, edited by Stefan Dudink, Karen Hagemann and John Tosh, 116-134. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
Hagemann, Karen. "National Symbols and the Politics of Memory: The Prussian Iron Cross of 1813: Its Cultural Context and Its Aftermath." In War Memories: The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars in Modern European Culture, edited by Alan I. Forrest, Etienne François and Karen Hagemann, 215-244. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Forth, Christopher E., and Bertrand Taithe. French Masculinities: History, Culture, and Politics. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Hämmerle, Christa. "Back to the Monarchy’s Glorifed Past? Military Discourses on Male Citizenship and Universal Conscription in the Austrian Empire, 1868–1914." In Representing Masculinity: Male Citizenship in Modern Western Culture, edited by Stefan Dudink, Karen Hagemann and Anna Clark, 151-168. Basingstoke, UK ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Hippler, Thomas. "The French Army, 1789-1914: Volunteers, Pressed Soldiers, and Conscripts." In Fighting for a Living: A Comparative History of Military Labour, 1500-2000, edited by Erik Jan Zurcher, 419-446. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014.

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